The Parish now known as Elmton with Creswell began as a medieval settlement.
Elmton being recorded in the Doomsday Book commissioned by William the Conqueror, but if Creswell existed then it would have been a small outlying hamlet or farm. Elmton did not grow much in fact hasn’t done so over the last 150 years, but Creswell might have become a small hamlet in the Creswell Valley consisting of yeoman farmers.
In 1722 an Estate map shows what this post medieval settlement may have looked like with buildings spread along the valley and a nucleus of buildings at the southern end of the village around an open space called Creswell Green, part of which is now called Fox Green.
Further development of Creswell took place in the 18th century in response to the construction of a turnpike road (today A616) along the valley linking Chesterfield and Mansfield. In 1854 the Duke of Portland acquired the Rodes estate in Elmton and Creswell resulting in significant development of Creswell village. Over the next 40 years comprehensive improvements followed and further developments of the enclosed landscape, new farm houses, improvements of Elmton Church and at Creswell a school and church. By 1894 Creswell had grown into a hamlet on 30-40 houses.
The Midland Railway was constructed west of the hamlet in 1875 and the Beighton branch of the Lancashire, Derby and East Coast Railway was constructed a little further west in 1836/97. The overall effects of these changes was to bring about a profound change in the relative importance of the two settlements of Elmton and Creswell between 1841 and 1881.
The population of Elmton remained largely static at just over 200, whilst that of Creswell grew from 222 to 300. Over the next two decades it was to rise to over 2,000. Between 1894 and 1900 North Eastern Derbyshire was transformed by the Coal Industry and associated increase in population and housing. The Bolsover Colliery Company was formed in 1894 and trial sinking in Creswell began in September of the same year. A good seam was found and coal turning commenced in 1897.
Construction of the Model Village began in 1896 on land purchased from the Duke of Portland and the village was built to provide cottages for the workforce. Covering land to an extent of approx. 10 acres, the Model Village consists of 250 two storey houses built on the form of a double octagon (an inner and outer circle). After completion of the Model Village, Creswell began to grow. Other historic buildings of note include Creswell Drill Hall built by Bolsover Colliery Company in 1903-04 to provide recreational facilities for the Creswell Boys Brigade. During World War 1 the building was converted to a Military Hospital, after which it retained its name Drill Hall but served the community as a social centre until 1976 when it was taken over by the Parish Council and took on its new name Creswell Social Centre.
The heritage significance of the village core is greatly enhanced by the fact that the buildings are of a high standard design and construction, reflecting the concerns of the Bolsover Company and the patronage of the Duke of Portland – schools, churches, Model Village, Miners Welfare, Social Centre, the original shop fronts 12-16 18-20 28-30 Elmton Road (circa 1907).
Both village greens – Elmton and Creswell Fox Green are now registered village greens. The population of the Parish has seen prolific growth from its 18th century total of 500, to 2,000 in 1900, 6,450 in 1971. When the Creswell Colliery closed in 1991 the population dropped to 4,820. With new housing at Elmfields and Markland, also the restoration of the Model Village the population has increased to over 5,000.